Other Types of Cancer
Canine Mammary Carcinoma - Female dogs are at
high risk for developing malignant mammary tumors. Mammary tumors
are the most common types of tumors in non-spayed female dogs. While
40 percent to 50 percent of these tumors are malignant, complete
surgical removal is often curative.
Canine Squamous Cell Carcinomas - Squamous cell
carcinoma is one of the most common cancers found in dogs. Common
sites are the mouth and the toes (nailbeds). Early detection and
complete surgical removal is the treatment of choice and fewer than
20% develop metastatic disease. SCC of the tonsil and tongue are
quite aggressive and fewer than 10% survive 1 year or longer despite
Canine Mast Cell Tumors - A common malignant tumor
in dogs is the mast cell tumor. Mast cells are immune cells that
are responsible for allergies. Mast cells can be found in all tissues
of the body but typically form tumors on the skin in close to 20
percent in the canine population. MCTs range from relatively benign
to extremely aggressive, leading to tumor spread and eventual death.
Particular breeds of dog are at risk for the development of this
tumor, indicating a role for genetic factors.
Malignant Histiocytosis - Malignant histiocytosis
(MH), while rare in people, occurs frequently in certain breeds
of dogs including Rottweilers, Golden Retrievers, Flat-Coated Retrievers
and Bernese Mountain Dogs. There is no reported effective therapy
for this disease and nearly all patients die within two to four
months of diagnosis. Recent work suggests Lomustine (CCNU) is helpful
in extending pet survival.
Brain Tumors - Tumors in the brain may occur in
dogs and cats as primary or as metastatic tumors. Epileptic-like
seizures or other extreme behavioral changes may be the only clinical
signs. CAT scanning will allow precise localization of these lesions.
Surgical excision followed by radiation therapy is the indicated
treatment if the tumor is in an accessible portion of the skull.
Radiation therapy alone can control some inoperable tumors.
Bladder Cancer - Bladder cancer occurs in dogs
with some breeds, Westhighland Terriers, at higher risk than others.
This is a slow developing cancer and pets may not show symptoms
for 3 to 6 months. Once symptoms occur, urinary obstruction and
bleeding is common. Piroxicam, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory
drug, palliates symptoms in most dogs for 3 to 9 months. In combination
with various chemotherapy drugs this can be extended for 3 to 18
months. Radiation can be palliative in some.